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US Amateur Radio - Amateur Extra (Element 4, 2016-2020) Practice Test

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1. - E1A08

If a station in a message forwarding system inadvertently forwards a message that is in violation of FCC rules, who is primarily accountable for the rules violation?

AThe control operators of all the stations in the system not authenticating the source from which they accept communications
BThe control operator of the originating station
CThe control operator of the packet bulletin board station
DThe control operators of all the stations in the system

2. - E1B01

Which of the following constitutes a spurious emission?

AAn amateur station transmission made at random without the proper call sign identification
BAn emission outside its necessary bandwidth that can be reduced or eliminated without affecting the information transmitted
CAny transmitted signal that unintentionally interferes with another licensed radio station
DA signal transmitted to prevent its detection by any station other than the intended recipient

3. - E1C02

What is meant by automatic control of a station?

AThe use of devices and procedures for control so that the control operator does not have to be present at a control point
BA station operating with its output power controlled automatically
CRemotely controlling a station's antenna pattern through a directional control link
DThe use of a control link between a control point and a locally controlled station

4. - E1D11

Which amateur stations are eligible to operate as Earth stations?

AOnly those of Amateur Extra Class operators
BOnly those of General, Advanced or Amateur Extra Class operators
CAny amateur station whose licensee has filed a pre-space notification with the FCC's International Bureau
DAny amateur station, subject to the privileges of the class of operator license held by the control operator

5. - E1E08

To which of the following examinees may a VE not administer an examination?

AEmployees of the VE
BRelatives of the VE as listed in the FCC rules
CAll of these choices are correct
DFriends of the VE

6. - E1F10

What is the maximum permitted transmitter peak envelope power for an amateur station transmitting spread spectrum communications?

A1 W
B1.5 kW
C1.5 W
D10 W

7. - E2A11

What type of antenna can be used to minimize the effects of spin modulation and Faraday rotation?

AA circularly polarized antenna
BA linearly polarized antenna
CAn isotropic antenna
DA log-periodic dipole array

8. - E2B12

How are analog SSTV images typically transmitted on the HF bands?

AVideo is converted to equivalent Baudot representation
BVideo is converted to equivalent ASCII representation
CVarying tone frequencies representing the video are transmitted using single sideband
DVarying tone frequencies representing the video are transmitted using PSK

9. - E2C10

Why might a DX station state that they are listening on another frequency?

AAll of these choices are correct
BTo improve operating efficiency by reducing interference
CTo separate the calling stations from the DX station
DBecause the DX station may be transmitting on a frequency that is prohibited to some responding stations

10. - E2D14

What is one advantage of using JT65 coding?

APermits fast-scan TV transmissions over narrow bandwidth
BThe ability to decode signals which have a very low signal to noise ratio
CEasily copied by ear if necessary
DUses only a 65 Hz bandwidth

11. - E2E03

How is the timing of JT65 contacts organized?

ABy exchanging ACK/NAK packets
BAlternating transmissions at 1 minute intervals
CIt depends on the lunar phase
DStations take turns on alternate days

12. - E3A06

Which of the following is required for microwave propagation via rain scatter?

AAll of these choices are correct
BRain droplets must be within the E layer
CThe rain must be within radio range of both stations
DRain droplets must be electrically charged

13. - E3B04

What is meant by the terms extraordinary and ordinary waves?

AExtraordinary waves describe rare long skip propagation compared to ordinary waves which travel shorter distances
BIndependent waves created in the ionosphere that are elliptically polarized
CLong path and short path waves
DRefracted rays and reflected waves

14. - E3C01

What does the term ray tracing describe in regard to radio communications?

AThe process in which an electronic display presents a pattern
BModeling a radio wave's path through the ionosphere
CEvaluating high voltage sources for X-Rays
DDetermining the radiation pattern from an array of antennas

15. - E4A04

What determines the upper frequency limit for a computer soundcard-based oscilloscope program?

AAmount of memory on the soundcard
BQ of the interface of the interface circuit
CAll of these choices are correct
DAnalog-to-digital conversion speed of the soundcard

16. - E4B09

What is indicated if the current reading on an RF ammeter placed in series with the antenna feed line of a transmitter increases as the transmitter is tuned to resonance?

AThere is possibly a short to ground in the feed line
BThe transmitter is not properly neutralized
CThere is an impedance mismatch between the antenna and feed line
DThere is more power going into the antenna

17. - E4C11

Which of the following is a desirable amount of selectivity for an amateur SSB phone receiver?

A4.8 kHz
B1 kHz
C4.2 kHz
D2.4 kHz

18. - E4D11

Why are third-order intermodulation products created within a receiver of particular interest compared to other products?

AThe third-order intercept is much higher than other orders
BThird-order products are an indication of poor image rejection
CThe third-order product of two signals which are in the band of interest is also likely to be within the band
DThird-order intermodulation produces three products for every input signal within the band of interest

19. - E4E11

Which is the most likely cause if you are hearing combinations of local AM broadcast signals within one or more of the MF or HF ham bands?

AThe broadcast station is transmitting an over-modulated signal
BYour station receiver IF amplifier stage is defective
CNearby corroded metal joints are mixing and re-radiating the broadcast signals
DYou are receiving sky wave signals from a distant station

20. - E5A05

What is the magnitude of the current at the input of a series RLC circuit as the frequency goes through resonance?


21. - E5B10

What is the relationship between the current through an inductor and the voltage across an inductor?

AVoltage and current are in phase
BCurrent leads voltage by 90 degrees
CVoltage and current are 180 degrees out of phase
DVoltage leads current by 90 degrees

22. - E5C13

What coordinate system is often used to display the resistive, inductive, and/or capacitive reactance components of impedance?

AElliptical coordinates
BFaraday grid
CRectangular coordinates
DMaidenhead grid

23. - E5D10

How can the true power be determined in an AC circuit where the voltage and current are out of phase?

ABy dividing the apparent power by the power factor
BBy dividing the reactive power by the power factor
CBy multiplying the apparent power times the power factor
DBy multiplying the reactive power times the power factor

24. - E6A03

Why does a PN-junction diode not conduct current when reverse biased?

AOnly P-type semiconductor material can conduct current
BHoles in P-type material and electrons in the N-type material are separated by the applied voltage, widening the depletion region
CExcess holes in P-type material combine with the electrons in N-type material, converting the entire diode into an insulator
DOnly N-type semiconductor material can conduct current

25. - E6B13

What type of bias is required for an LED to emit light?

AInductive bias
BForward bias
CZero bias
DReverse bias

26. - E6C08

In Figure E6-5, what is the schematic symbol for a NAND gate?


27. - E6D16

What is the common name for a capacitor connected across a transformer secondary that is used to absorb transient voltage spikes?

ASnubber capacitor
BFeedback capacitor
CClipper capacitor
DTrimmer capacitor

28. - E6E11

What is a characteristic of DIP packaging used for integrated circuits?

APackage mounts in a direct inverted position
BLow leakage doubly insulated package
CTwo chips in each package (Dual In Package)
DA total of two rows of connecting pins placed on opposite sides of the package (Dual In-line Package)

29. - E6F05

Which describes an optical shaft encoder?

AA device which detects rotation of a control by interrupting a light source with a patterned wheel
BA digital encryption device often used to encrypt spacecraft control signals
CA device which measures the strength of a beam of light using analog to digital conversion
DA device for generating RTTY signals by means of a rotating light source

30. - E7A01

Which is a bi-stable circuit?

AAn "OR" gate
BAn "AND" gate
CA clock
DA flip-flop

31. - E7B14

Why are switching amplifiers more efficient than linear amplifiers?

AThe power transistor is at saturation or cut off most of the time, resulting in low power dissipation
BSwitching amplifiers use push-pull circuits
CLinear amplifiers have high gain resulting in higher harmonic content
DSwitching amplifiers operate at higher voltages

32. - E7C08

Which of the following factors has the greatest effect in helping determine the bandwidth and response shape of a crystal ladder filter?

AThe DC voltage applied to the quartz crystal
BThe amplitude of the signals passing through the filter
CThe gain of the RF stage preceding the filter
DThe relative frequencies of the individual crystals

33. - E7D01

What is one characteristic of a linear electronic voltage regulator?

AThe control element duty cycle is proportional to the line or load conditions
BIt has a ramp voltage as its output
CIt eliminates the need for a pass transistor
DThe conduction of a control element is varied to maintain a constant output voltage

34. - E7E02

What is the function of a reactance modulator?

ATo produce PM signals by using an electrically variable inductance or capacitance
BTo produce AM signals by using an electrically variable inductance or capacitance
CTo produce PM signals by using an electrically variable resistance
DTo produce AM signals by using an electrically variable resistance

35. - E7F15

Which of the following is an advantage of a Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filter vs an Infinite Impulse Response (IIR) digital filter?

AFIR filters can respond faster to impulses
BFIR filters are easier to implement for a given set of passband rolloff requirements
CAll of these choices are correct
DFIR filters delay all frequency components of the signal by the same amount

36. - E7G10

What absolute voltage gain can be expected from the circuit in Figure E7-4 when R1 is 1800 ohms and RF is 68 kilohms?


37. - E7H01

What are three oscillator circuits used in Amateur Radio equipment?

APierce, Fenner and Beane
BColpitts, Hartley and Pierce
CTaft, Pierce and negative feedback
DTaft, Hartley and Pierce

38. - E8A08

Why would a direct or flash conversion analog-to-digital converter be useful for a software defined radio?

AImmunity to out of sequence coding reduces spurious responses
BVery low power consumption decreases frequency drift
CVery high speed allows digitizing high frequencies
DAll of these choices are correct

39. - E8B11

What is digital time division multiplexing?

ATwo or more data streams are assigned to discrete sub-carriers on an FM transmitter
BTwo or more signals are arranged to share discrete time slots of a data transmission
CTwo or more signals are quadrature modulated to increase bandwidth efficiency
DTwo or more data streams share the same channel by transmitting time of transmission as the sub-carrier

40. - E8C11

What is the relationship between symbol rate and baud?

AThey are the same
BBaud is only used for RTTY
CBaud is twice the symbol rate
DSymbol rate is only used for packet-based modes

41. - E8D09

What is considered a good minimum IMD level for an idling PSK signal?

A-30 dB
B+15 dB
C-20 dB
D+10 dB

42. - E9A02

What antenna has no gain in any direction?

AIsotropic antenna
BQuarter-wave vertical
CHalf-wave dipole

43. - E9B14

What type of information can be obtained by submitting the details of a proposed new antenna to a modeling program?

ASWR vs frequency charts
BPolar plots of the far field elevation and azimuth patterns
CAll of these choices are correct
DAntenna gain

44. - E9C06

What is the effect of a terminating resistor on a rhombic antenna?

AIt changes the radiation pattern from horizontal to vertical polarization
BIt reflects the standing waves on the antenna elements back to the transmitter
CIt changes the radiation pattern from bidirectional to unidirectional
DIt decreases the ground loss

45. - E9D12

Which of the following would provide the best RF ground for your station?

AAn electrically short connection to a metal water pipe
BA 50 ohm resistor connected to ground
CAn electrically short connection to 3 or 4 interconnected ground rods driven into the Earth
DAn electrically short connection to 3 or 4 interconnected ground rods via a series RF choke

46. - E9E07

What term best describes the interactions at the load end of a mismatched transmission line?

ADielectric constant
BCharacteristic impedance
CVelocity factor
DReflection coefficient

47. - E9F01

What is the velocity factor of a transmission line?

AThe index of shielding for coaxial cable
BThe velocity of the wave in the transmission line multiplied by the velocity of light in a vacuum
CThe ratio of the characteristic impedance of the line to the terminating impedance
DThe velocity of the wave in the transmission line divided by the velocity of light in a vacuum

48. - E9G08

What is the process of normalization with regard to a Smith chart?

AReassigning prime center with regard to the reactance axis
BReassigning impedance values with regard to the prime center
CReassigning resistance values with regard to the reactance axis
DReassigning reactance values with regard to the resistance axis

49. - E9H04

What is an advantage of using a shielded loop antenna for direction finding?

AIt automatically cancels ignition noise in mobile installations
BIt is electro statically balanced against ground, giving better nulls
CIt allows stations to communicate without giving away their position
DIt eliminates tracking errors caused by strong out-of-band signals

50. - E0A04

When evaluating a site with multiple transmitters operating at the same time, the operators and licensees of which transmitters are responsible for mitigating over-exposure situations?

AEach transmitter operating with a duty-cycle greater than 50 percent
BOnly the most powerful transmitter
COnly commercial transmitters
DEach transmitter that produces 5 percent or more of its MPE limit at accessible locations